Skip to main content

Full text of "Descriptions of twenty-seven apparently new species and subspecies of mammals. All but six collected by Edmund Heller"

See other formats





-~V"1 .,' 

I > 


* v* * 







Return this book on or before the 
Latest Date stamped below A 
charge is made on all overdue 

U. of I. Library 





Edmund Heller. 


D. G. ELLIOT, F. R. S. E., ETC. 
Curator of Department. 

December, 1903. 






Ovis cervina *cremnobates. Subsp. nov. 

Type locality: Mattomi, San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower Cali- 
fornia, Mexico. 

Geogr. distr.-.. San Pedro Martir, and probably the Laguna Moun- 
tains, Lower California, Mexico. 

Genl. char.: Resembling the O. c. nelsoni from Grape Vine 
Mountains, boundary of Nevada and Lower California, but of a much 
lighter color, the head of a three-year-old ram being nearly white, 
with a very small caudal patch f not divided from color of upper parts 

by any perceptible line; fore part of legs almost black, similar to those 
of O. stonii; head very broad between orbits, from 20 to 25 mm. broader 
in old rams than the head of O. c. nelsoni; horns tyf old rams very large 
and curving outward from the head; those of ewes with the points 
diverging widely apart. 

* X/n)f&oftaTJ)O haunter of the cliffs. 

t Misled by a dressed skin which showed th-i patch and the white of inner side of thighs 
together, 1 said in my previous paper, p. 209. that this caudal patch was very large, when the con- 
trary is the fact. 



Color: Upper parts and sides varying in individuals from drab 
gray or pale broccoli brown to hair brown; in some cases this sheep 
appears almost white; chest and line along ventral surface and front 
of. legs black or brownish black; head and neck hair brown, darker 
than back in some individuals; drab-gray in the old ram; back part 
of legs and inside of hind legs, narrow line in center of ventral sur- 
face, caudal patch, nose around nostrils, and inside of ears white; line 
across caudal patch from tail to darker color on rump (as in all moun- 
tain sheep), and the tail brownish black. 

Measurements Female: Total length, 1450; tail, 120; hind foot, 
375; ear, 114. Skull: total length, 283; occipito-nasal length, 226; 
Hensel, 246; width between outer edge of orbits, 156; zygomatic 
width, 124; length of nasals, 109; palatal length, 148; length of upper 
tooth row, 84; length of half of mandible, 203; of lower tooth row, 82. 
Horns: total length along curve, 310; circumference at base, 144; 
spread at tip, 393. Head of old ram: total length, 330; width between 
orbits, inner edge, 180; circumference of horn at base, 395; length 
along outer curve, 850; spread at tips, 485. 

In my paper on the Mammals of the San Pedro Martir Mountains, 
I referred the specimens of mountain sheep obtained by Mr. Heller to the 
O. c. nelsoni with a doubt, as I had had no opportunity to compare them 
with any examples of the form described by Dr. Merriam. By the 
kindness of my friend D. A. K. Fisher, Assistant Chief of the Bio- 
logical Survey, who sent me a skin and skull of an old ram from the 
Chuckawalla Mountains, killed in August, 1902, and referred to O. c. 
nelsoni, I have been able to compare the two forms. In color this ram 
is quite different from all of my thirteen specimens from the San Pedro 
Martir Mountains, being very much darker, the animal being in the 
"blue" coat, and is a dark brownish drab, with a very large and wide 
caudal patch, and the legs are brownish in front, and not black or 
blackish; in fact, more on the Ovis cervina style, while these parts in 
San Pedro Martir examples are more on that of the Ovis stonii. I 
regret very much that I am unable to make a comparison of the skulls 
of the two large rams, but the one from the San Pedro Martir, at pres- 
ent in my possession, is mounted, and has been loaned to me by Mr. 
Dupee, of Chicago, who shot it, and the measurements of the head 
given above are taken over the skin. The horns of the ram are longer 
and heavier than those of the Chuckawalla Mountains specimen, and 
stand out from the head more. The differences between the new race 
and O. c. ndsoni may be summed up as follows: darker legs, more like 
those of O. stonii, much smaller caudal patch grading so imperceptibly 
into the color of the back as to leave no dividing line whatever; the 


general color of upper parts being broccoli or hair brown instead of a 
pale dingy brown ; the skull wider between orbits, and horns some- 
what wider apart at tips. When a comparison of old ram skulls can 
be made, other differences may be found. Mr. Heller's thirteen 
examples were killed during the latter part of June and in July, and 
it would be advantageous to have specimens taken at the same time of 
year, as the color of the coat changes with the season somewhat, 
although not to the same degree as is witnessed among the deer. All 
of the thirteen specimens were females except one, a young male, no 
old ram having been secured. The horns of the ewes are unusually 
large for this sex, and have a wide spread at the tips. The figures 
here given of the heads of the old ram and ewe (type specimen) show 
very well the shape and type of the horns. 




Citellus 1. *vinnulus. Subsp. nov. 

Type locality: Keeler, Owens Lake, Inyo County, California. 

Geogr. distr.: Panamint, Coso, and Inyo Mountains to Keeler, 
Owens Lake, Inyo County, California. 

Gen/, char.: Nearest to C. peninsula from Lower California, 
but the under part of body and tail white instead of pale yellow in the 
summer pelage. It is generally darker and more vinaceous than 
C. leucurus, and with a smaller hind foot; and not so dark as C. I. 
cinnamomea, and the hind foot smaller. 

Color: Top of head and upper parts mixed black and vinaceous, 
the latter hue predominating and giving the tone to the general color; 
nape and between shoulders with the hairs tipped with white, giving 
to this part a gray appearance, lighter than the other parts; two rather 
broad white stripes from shoulders to end of rump; shoulders, top of 
fore legs and feet to toes, thighs, and upper surface of hind legs and 
feet dark vinaceous; toes white on fore feet, buffy vinaceous at tips 
on hind feet; sides of face and neck and entire under part of body, 
legs, and feet silvery white; base of fur plumbeous; tail above like 
back for basal third, remainder black with white hairs intermingled 
and edged with white; under part white with a subapical black bar. 

Measurements: , Total length, 215; tail vertebrae, 66; hind foot, 

* Vinnulus charming. 


38.5; ear, 12. Skull: total length, 37.3; Hensel, 30; zygomatic 
width, 19; interorbital width, 10; length of nasals, 10.5; palatal 
length, 12; length of upper tooth row, 7; length of mandible, 22; 
length of lower tooth row, 7. 

Strange as it may appear, this form has its nearest ally in C. I. 
peninsula from Lower California, differing from that race in the char- 
acters given above. The general dark coloring and the vinaceous 
hind foot with its smaller measurements readily serve to distinguish it 
from C. leucurus. The hind foot of the type exhibits the greatest 
dimension, and the average of this member in the series before me 
would be much less, as a number measure only 36, some even 35.5 
mm. It seems to supplant the C. leucurus of the Mohave Desert, 
and is dispersed through the mountain region between Keeler 
and Death Valley. Keeler examples, like other mammals from that 
locality, exhibit the deepest colors, and the race appears to be strongly 

Citellus *chlorus. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Palm Springs, Riverside County, California. 

Geogr. distr.: Riverside and San Diego counties, California. 

Gen/, char.: Size about equal to that of C. terelicaudus, but color 
entirely different. Skull rather stout and heavy; tail long. 

Color: Entire upper parts and sides olive gray with a brownish 
sheen in certain lights; upper part of arms and thighs olive gray; 
entire under parts grayish white; hands brownish, feet whitish; tail 
above, basal half like back, slightly more brownish, apical half black- 
ish mixed with brown and edged with white; beneath pale brown, 
margined very narrowly with black and fringed with white; ears very 
small, blackish. 

Measurements: Type. Total length, 255; tail, 100; hind foot, 37; 
ear, 8. Extremes: total length, 230-255; tail, 88-100; hind foot, 
35-37; ear, 7-8. Skull: total length, 32; Hensel, 30; interorbital 
width, 8; zygomatic width, 22; width of brain case, 18; length of 
nasals, 8; palatal length, 17; length of upper tooth row, 7; length of 
the half of lower mandible, angle to tip of incisors, 24; length of lower 
tooth row, 6.5. 

This species of Citellus is not like any of the other members of 
this particular group. In the entire absence of spots it resembles its 
relatives, but is at once distinguished from all others by its peculiar 

* %'t.opotT pale. 


Citellus *eremonomus. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Furnace Creek, Death Valley, Inyo County, Cali- 

Genl. char.: Size small; color a darker vinaceous than that of any 
other member of the unspotted group of Citellus; tail with only basal 
half like that of the upper parts. Skull similar to that of C. moha- 
vensis, but processes of the pterygoids do not touch the bu-llae. 

Color: Upper parts grizzled vinaceous cinnamon; sides of face, 
nose, and body, inner sides of legs, and entire under parts, silvery 
white; fore feet pale brown, hind feet whitish; tail above, basal half 
grizzled vinaceous cinnamon like the back, terminal half blackish 
mixed with white hairs, and narrowly edged with white, under part 
silvery white at base, remainder buff mixed with black, bordered and 
tipped with black, and narrowly fringed with white. Ears very small, 
similar in color to the back. 

Measurements: Total length, 252; tail vertebrae, 89; hind foot, 
35; ear, 8.5. Skull: total length, 36; occipito-nasal length, 35; 
Hensel, 30; zygomatic width, 23; interorbital constriction, 9.5; 
palatal length, 17; length of nasals, 12; length of upper tooth row, 7; 
length of mandible, angle to tips of incisors, 25 ; length of lower tooth 
row, 7. 

This form in its coloring is quite different from any of those 
described belonging to this particular group, and its peculiar vina- 
ceous cinnamon color with the plumbeous bases of the hairs showing 
through at intervals gives it a somewhat scaly, harsh appearance, more 
like the members of the harrisi group, but without any stripe. It was 
not common in the locality in which it was taken, for Mr. Heller, who 
collected the specimens, was able to secure only three individuals. 


Onychomys pulcher. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Morongo Pass, San Bernardino Mountains, California. 

Genl. char.: Color pale, size medium. 

Color: Upper parts buff, inclining to pinkish, darker on rump, 
where the tint becomes almost a salmon buff; nose, sides of face, lips, 
entire under parts, legs, and feet, pure white; tail above soiled white, 
sides and under parts white; ears whitish at base, in life probably 

* spyftovofjLOff living in a desert. 


flesh color, apical half brownish black ; a tuft of whitish hairs covers 
the base of ear. Orbital ring black. 

Measurements: Total length, 150; tail vertebrae, 55; hind foot, 
21 ; ear, 18.5. Skull: total length, 25.5; Hensel, 20; zygomatic 
width, 13.5; interorbital constriction, 5; length of nasals, 9; palatal 
length, 10 ; length of upper tooth row, 4; length of mandible, 15; 
length of lower tooth row, 4. 

This is a pale Onychomys, not exactly resembling any other species. 
It is about the size of O, macrotis from Lower California, but quite 
different in color. It is a desert form as well as a mountain-dweller, 
and ranges from the Morongo Pass through the Mohave Desert to 
Lone Pine, and is also found on the Coso Range. It is a very pretty 
species, with its peculiar pinkish and salmon buff coloring. 

Peromyscus *petraius. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Lone Pine, Inyo County, California. 

Genl. char.: Similar to P. auripectus, but paler; tail much darker, 
foot smaller, no pectoral spot. 

Color: Head and uppef parts ochraceous buff lined with black ; 
side paler; lips, face beneath eyes, lower part of flanks, hands, ahd 
feet white; base of fur plumbeous; tail hairy, dusky or blackish 
above, beneath whitish; ears brownish black, base covered by a tuft 
of ochraceous buff hairs. 

Measurements: Total length, 177; tail vertebrae, 98; hind foot, 
20.5; ear, 20. Skull: total length, 24; Hensel, 18; zygomatic width, 
12; interorbital constriction, 4; palatallength, 9; greatest width of 
brain case, 7; length of upper molar series, 3; length of mandible, 
angle to tips of incisors, 13; length of lower tooth row, 3. 

This mouse is allied to P. auripectus, Allen, but can be readily 
distinguished from that species by its paler coloration, darker tail, and 
smaller foot, the average length of this member in fifteen examples 
being 20.1. 

Peromyscus parasiticus. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Lone Pine, Inyo County, California. 

Genl. char.: similar to P. r. pinalis, but larger in all of its dimen- 
sions. Skull with larger rostrum, longer nasals, broader between 
orbits, and larger, differently shaped brain-case. 

Color: Top of head and dorsal region dusky cinnamon, becoming 

* TtSTpatoff frequenting rocks. 


pale cinnamon on sides of face beneath eyes; shoulders, flanks, and 
sides of rump, lips, sides of nose, lower part of flanks, thighs, hands 
and feet, and entire under parts white; base of fur plumbeous; tail 
above dusky, beneath yellowish white. 

Measurements: Total length, 214; tail vertebrae, 119'; hind foot, . 
23.5; ear 20.5. Skull: total length, 28; Hensel, 19; zygomatic 
width, 13; interorbital constriction, 4.5; width of brain-case, 12.5; 
length of brain-case, 14; palatal length, u; length of nasals, u; 
length of upper tooth row, 4; length of mandible, angle to tip of incis- 
ors, 16; length of lower tooth row, 4. 

With a coloring very like that of P. r. pinalis, the great difference 
in size of skull and shape of brain-case, together with the geographical 
distribution, shows that the two animals represent forms that are quite 
separate from each other. These specimens were taken at the base 
of the mountains at about 4,000 feet elevation, and no individuals 
were seen either in the high mountains or on the desert. It would 
appear to be local in its habitat. In a certain way, according to Mr. 
Heller, it is something of a parasite, frequenting and taking posses- 
sion, when possible, of the nest of the wood rats (Neotoma) dwelling 
in the same region. It is on account of this trait in its character that 
I have given it the above specific name. 

Peromyscus *metallicola. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Providentia Mines, Northwestern Sonora, Mexico. 

Genl. char.: Similar to P. eremicus, but tail hairy and with a 
pencil; sides deep orange buff, instead of pale fulvous. 

Color: Upper parts mixed black and orange buff; forehead and 
nose gray and buff mixed: sides of face, shoulders, sides, and rump 
about base of tail deep orange buff; orbital ring black; lips and entire 
under parts, hands, and feet pure white; tail above dusky, sides 
beneath white; ears brown. 

Measurements: Total length, 190.5; tail vertebrae, 101.6; hind 
foot, 25. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 26; Hensel, 20; zygomatic 
width, 13; interorbital constriction, 4.5; width of brain-case, 12; 
length of nasals, 10; palatal length,, 10.5; length of upper tooth row, 
4; length of mandible, angle to alveolus of incisor, 10; length of lower 
tooth row, 4. 

This mouse, with a general resemblance to P. eremicus, is strik- 
ingly different in having the tail thickly covered with hair and a pencil 
at the tip, while the tail of the species compared is naked. The buff 

* Metallicola, a dweller in a mine. 


colors are much brighter and deeper, altogether of an orange instead 
of a pale fulvous hue. A series was procured at the type locality by 
Mr. J. Rowley. 

Rhithrodontomys catalinae. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Saint Catalina Island, Santa Barbara Islands, Cali- 

Gen/, char.: Similar to R. longicauda, but larger; hind foot very 
much larger. 

Color: Top of head and dorsal region brownish black or buff 
mixed, black predominating; sides cream buff; indistinct cream buff 
lateral line; under parts, hands, and feet white, plumbeous of under 
fur showing through on under parts; large cream buff spot on breast; 
tail above blackish, beneath soiled white; ears brown. 

Measurements: Total length, 155.7; tail vertebrae, 83.8; hind foot, 


While resembling in its coloring the well-known R. longicaudus 
from the coast region of California, the present form is characterized 
by its larger size, as shown in all the measurements, the length of the 
hind foot being especially noticeable. 

Neotoma fuscipes mohavensis. Subsp. nov. 

Type locality: Ore Grande, Mohave Desert, Kern County, Cali- 
fornia. . 

Genl. char. : Smaller than JV. f. macrotis, more grayish in color, 
and with a smaller foot. 

Color: Upper parts dark drab gray, darkest on top of the head 
and on the dorsal line; sides paler, inclined to buffy; fore legs buffy 
gray; thighs dark gray or light plumbeous; chin, throat, inner side of 
fore legs and thighs, and ventral region with the lower part of thighs, 
hands and feet white; hairs on sides plumbeous at base, all the others 
on under parts white to the roots; tail above blackish brown, beneath 
whitish brown, line of demarcation very distinct; ears naked, dark 

Measurements: Total length, 384; tail vertebrae, 173; hind foot, 
40; ear from notch, 31. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 47; Hensel, 
39 J zygomatic width, 24; interorbital constriction, 5 ; length of nasals, 
16; palatal length, 21; length of upper tooth row, 9; length of man- 
dible, angle to tips of incisors, 31; length of lower tooth row, 8. 


This desert rat is noticeable for its gray color, with hardly any 
red showing, so often conspicuous in its relative N. f. macrotis. It 
would seem to be the desert representative of that race. Mr. Heller 
found it only at .the type locality where seven specimens were taken, 
and the extent of its distribution has not been ascertained. 

Neotoma desertorum grandis. Subsp. nov. 

Type locality: Cameron Lake, Sierra Nevada, Kern County, Cali- 

Genl. char.: Similar to N. desertorum, but larger; tail more hairy 
and blacker above. 

Color: Upper parts mixed buff and black; sides and thighs brighter 
buff with less black; nose and sides of face buff; under parts and feet 
white; under fur along sides and thighs plumbeous; hairs on throat, 
chest, and middle of ventral surface white to the roots; tail very hairy, 
black above, white beneath; ears pale brown, tuft of buff hairs at base 
succeeded by a band of black hairs near middle of ear. 

Measurements: Total length, 385; tail, 185; hind foot, 38; ear, 
30. Skull: total length, 47; Hensel, 40; zygomatic width, 23; inter- 
orbital constriction, 6; length of nasals, 17; palatal length, 21; length 
of upper tooth row, 8; length of mandible, angle to tip of incisors, 
30; length of lower tooth row, 9. 

This is a large rat, equaling in size N. f. streatori, but with the 
coloring of N. desertorum, and a larger hind foot than that species; in 
fact, the two specimens from Cameron Lake are exactly alike in 
appearance with topotypes from Furnace Creek, Death Valley, except 
the black tail, but the gfeat size at once separates them from the 
longer known species. The skull, save in its greater dimensions, 
offers no particular differences from that of N. desertorum. 


Teonoma cinerea *acraia. Subsp. nov. 

Type locality: Hot Springs, Long Canon, Mount Whitney, Inyo 
County, California. Altitude 8,000 feet. 

Genl. char.: Similar to T. cinerea, but much paler, tail paler, foot 

Color: Upper parts pinkish buff lined with black on top of head and 
dorsal region, lightest on rump; sides of face and flanks pinkish buff 
with very little black showing; this color extending over shoulders 

* axpatoff dwelling on the hills. 


and thighs; orbital ring black; entire under parts, hands, and feet 
white; base of fur on sides only, plumbeous; tail above like back, 
slightly darker towards tip, beneath yellowish white; ears naked, dark 
brown; soles of feet naked. 

Measurements: Total length, 360; tail vertebrae, 150; hind foot, 
40; ear, 33.5. Skull: total length, 45.5; Hensel, 40; zygomatic 
width, 25; interorbital constriction, 6; width of brain-case above 
roots of zygomata, 19; palatal length, palatal arch to alveolus of 
incisor, 22; length of upper tooth row, alveolar border, 9; length of 
mandible, angle to tips of incisors, 31; length of lower tooth row, 
alveolar border, 9. 

This wood rat is of a very much paler color than T. cinerea, the tail 
being especially noticeable for its light hue when placed among speci- 
mens of the typical form. The skull presents no differences worthy of 
remark. This rat was procured by Mr. Heller at high elevations, 
8,000-11,000 feet on Mt. Whitney, and on the Inyo Mountains, the 
higher range being on the last named, where it was more numerous at 
timber line. 



Thomomys *scapterus. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Hannopec Cafton, Panamint Mountains, Inyo County, 

Geogr. distr.: Panamint, Inyo and Coso mountains, Inyo County, 

Gen/, char.: Similar to T. operarius, but much darker in color, 
and with much shorter nasals. 

Color: Upper parts and side wood brown, heavily lined with black 
on top of head and dorsal region, in some specimens nearly forming a 
dorsal band, but in the type this part is more uniform with the side, 
'the back being less heavily lined with black; lower sides and entire 
under parts white, the plumbeous under fur showing through; hands 
and feet whitish; tail unicolor, white; ears and small spot behind ear 

Measurements: Total length, 229; tail vertebrae, 74; hind foot, 29; 
ear, 6. Skull: total length, 37; Hensel, 33; zygomatic width, 23; 
interorbital constriction, 6; greatest width of brain case, 9; palatal 

* sxanrqp a digger. 


length, 33; length of nasals (median), 10; anterior width of nasals, 5; 
length of mandible, angle to alveoli of incisors, 24. 

This gopher is distributed along the bases of the mountain ranges 
named above, but does not go out on to the desert, nor west of the 
Inyo Mountains. Its dark coloring will distinguish it at all times from 
T. operarius, which seems to be its nearest relative. 


Dipodomys deserti helleri. Subsp. nov. 

Type locality: Keeler, Owens Lake, Inyo County, California. 

Genl. char. : Size similar to that of D. deserti, color pale ochra- 
ceous instead of pale yellowish brown ; upper part of tail like back 
with no black markings, no black on face. 

Color: Upper parts pale ochraceous or dark pinkish buff; of a 
similar tint, but not so dark as are the upper parts of D. nitratus; line 
over eyes, sides of nose and forepart of face, entire under parts, limbs, 
and feet pure white; tail with line above pale ochraceous like back, 
becoming ochraceous near tip, sides and under part and tip pure 
white; ear same color as back. 

Measurements: Total length, 333; tail 195; hind foot, 53^5; ear, 
16. Skull: total length, 43; Hensel, 37; zygomatic width, 21; width 
of mastoids, 29; greatest width of parietals, 20; length of nasals, 14; 
palatal length, 14; length of upper tooth row, 5; length of mandible, 
condyle to tip of incisors, 21 ; length of lower tooth row, 5. 

A series of this form from Keeler, collected by Mr. Heller, pre- 
sents the same differences from typical D. deserti as D. nitratus from 
the same locality does from D. m. simiolus. It is much redder, lacks 
entirely the pale yellowish brown hue of D. deserti, and has no black or 
dusky hue upon the tail. I have much pleasure in naming this well- 
marked race after Mr. E. Heller, whose work in the field has con- 
tributed so greatly to the enlargement of the mammal collections of 
this Institution. 

Dipodomys m. *arenivagus. Subsp. nov. 

Type locality: San Felipe, Lower California, Mexico. 

Genl. char.: Size small; similar to D. m. simiolus, but paler; ear 

Arena, sand; vagor. to wander. 


larger, hind foot shorter; skull narrower across mastoids and parietals; 
nasals shorter. 

Color: Upper parts pinkish buff, palest on the head and darkest 
on rump, the plumbeous under fur showing in places; no black streaks 
on face; white spots behind ears and above eyes; upper parts of sides 
from eye to rump, like color of rump; nose, sides of face, lower part 
of flanks, entire under parts and limbs, pure white; a narrow line of 
pinkish buff across thighs; hands yellowish white, feet white; tail with 
a bushy pencil, the upper parts to tip pale drab, sides and beneath 
white; ears naked, yellowish. 

Measurements: Type. Total length, 225; tail vertebras, 134; hind 
foot, 36; ear, 15. Average of ten specimens: total length, 234.7; 
tail, 137.3; hind foot, 36.7; ear, 14.1. Skull: total length, posterior 
line of mastoids to anterior end of nasals, 34; Hensel, 20; zygomatic 
width, 15 ; width of mastoids, 22 ; greatest width of parietals, 15 ; length 
of nasals, 12; greatest width of rostrum, 5; palatal length, n; length 
of upper tooth row, 3 ; length of mandible, condyle to tip of incisors, 
16; length of lower tooth row, 3. 

In my paper on the Mammals of the San Pedro Martir Mountains 
(Field Museum Publication, Vol. III., p. 220), I referred the ten speci- 
mens of Dipodomys from San Felipe and Canon Esperanza to D. m. 
simiolus. Since that paper was issued, I have received from Mr. E. 
Heller, series of Dipodomys from Palm Springs (Agua Caliente), and 
Whitewater, type localities of D. m. simiolus and D. m. similis respect- 
ively. On comparing the Lower California examples with these, it is 
at once seen that the Mexican animal is lighter and more pink in color, 
very much smaller in all its measurements, and is without the dark 
streak on the lower side of the tail. These ten specimens represent a 
well-marked diminutive race of D. merriami, nearest allied to D. m. 

Dipodomys merriami mortivallis. Subsp. nov. 

Type locality: Furnace Creek, Death Valley, Inyo County, Cali- 

Genl. char.: Similar to D. m. simiolus, but the dorsal and 
ventral stripes and pencil of the tail vary from a purplish drab to a 
pale russet, quite different from the blackish tail of D. m. simiolus. 
The general color of the upper parts of the body is darker than that 
of the sub-species just named. The skulls of the two forms are much 
alike, save the new race has much longer and broader nasals widening 
at the anterior end; the extreme width of the parietals is greater, and 
the mastoids are broader. 


Color: Type $. Above russet, darkest on the rump, the plumbe- 
ous under fur showing occasionally in places; sides dark russet; spots 
behind ear, superciliary stripe, face in front of eye, nose, entire under 
parts, stripe across thigh, and feet pure white; inner side of thighs 
deep russet like the rump; black bar across rump; tail bushy on apical 
third, with dorsal and ventral stripe pale russet; sides white; ears 
russet. Other specimens from Furnace Creek have the tail a purplish 
drab on the dorsal and ventral stripes, and also the bushy portion or 
pencil ; but all the examples have the broad, long nasals and other 
characters of the skull mentioned above. 

Measurements: Type, total length, 240; tail, 142; hind foot 37.5 ; 
ear, 14. Extremes: total length, 240-260; tail, 142-160; hind foot, 
37.5-40; ear, 12-15. Skull: total length, anterior end of nasals to 
outer margin of mastoid, 36; Hensel, 22; greatest width across mas- 
toids, 22; least interorbital width, 13; width of interparietal at mas- 
toids, 17; length of nasals, 13; posterior width, 2; anterior width, 3; 
length of upper tooth row, 3.5; height at coronoid process from 
angle, 6. 

This Kangaroo rat is probably nearest to D. m. simiolus, but is of 
a deeper color, and has a differently colored tail and much longer 
nasals. It appears to be restricted to the Death Valley region. 

Perognathus *mesembrinus. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Palm Springs. 

Gen/, char.: Color pale; tail hairy; pencil large, bushy; size 

Color: Upper parts mixed drab gray [and buff; no lateral line; 
thighs like back ; lips, entire under parts, fore legs, fore and hind feet 
white; tail above and pencil brownish drab, beneath whitish; ears 
dark brown, bases covered with tufts of drab gray. 

Measurements: Total length, 195; tail vertebrae, 114; hind foot, 
23; ear, n. Skull: total length, 21; Hensel, 18; zygomatic width, 
13; interorbital constriction, 7; mastoid width, 14; greatest parietal 
width, 10.5; length of mastoids, 9: palatal length, 10; length of 
nasals, 9.4; length of upper tooth row, 4; length of mandible, 12.5; 
length of lower tooth row, 3.5. 

This is a small pale desert form nearest allied probably to P. 
formosus from Death Valley. The skull, while considerably shorter 
than that of the species just named, is equally broad, and with the 

* fieffefJLjSpwoff South or southern, southern representative of P. formosus. 


same large mastoids. Like P. formosus it is also on the borderland 
ot Perognathus and Chatodipus, the mastoids protruding beyond the 
occiput just enough to retain it in Perognathus. Of the two forms, 
however, the present one has the mastoids projecting the farthest 
beyond the occiput, and the bullse in both are large and widely sepa- 
rated anteriorly. A series of the new species was obtained at Palm 
Springs, which would seem to be its northern limit, but it evidently 
goes into Lower California; for one specimen from Mattomi on the 
edge of the desert, collected by Mr. Heller, and which in my paper 
on the San Pedro Martir mammals, I had referred to P.fallax, proved, 
on comparison, to belong to this species. 

Perognathus *elibatus. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Mount Pinos, Los Angeles County, California, alti- 
tude 5,000 feet. 

Genl. char. : Size small ; color dark ; tail long. 

Color: Upper parts black and buff, the former color predominat- 
ing; nose, sides of face, line over eye, and lateral line cream buff; 
under parts, hands, and feet white; tail, basal half above buff tinged 
with dusky, remainder dusky, beneath yellowish white ; ears brown, 
white spot on each side of margin near notch; whiskers black; line on 
side of nose black. 

Measurements: Total length, 146; tail, 77; hind foot, 20.5; ear, 7. 
Skull: total length, 22; Hensel, 15; zygomatic width, n; interorbital 
constriction, 5; mastoid width, 12; greatest width of parietals, 9; 
length of nasals, 7; palatal length, 8; length of upper tooth row, 3; 
length of mandible, angle to end of incisors, n ; length of -lower tooth 
row, 3. 

This is a very distinct species of Perognathus, belonging to the 
Panamintinus group, but very much darker in color than any other 
form, being almost black on the upper parts. Mr. Heller obtained a 
series in a valley on Mount Pinos at an elevation of 5,000 feet, the 
only place in which the species was found. It dwells among the pines, 
evidently only at high elevations. 

Perognathus fpericalles. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Keeler, Owens Lake, Inyo County, California. 
Genl. char. : Size small ; colors very pale ; ear rather large. 
. Color: Entire upper parts deep cream buff tinged with reddish, 
high mountains. 
very beautiful. 


darkest on head and rump; sides paler cream buff ; upper lip and entire 
under parts white; feet buffy white; tail above pale brown, beneath 
yellowish white; ear pale brown, with a buffy tuft of hair at base. 

Measurements: Total length, 130; tail vertebrae, 73; hind foot, 
19; ear, 6.5. Skull: total length, 21.5; Hensel, 14.5; zygomatic 
width, ii ; interorbital width, 5; mastoid width, 12; greatest width of 
parietals, 10; length of interparietal, 2.5; length of nasals, 8.4; pala- 
tal length, 7.5; length of upper tooth row, 4; length of mandible, 
angle to tips of incisors, 16.5; length of lower tooth row, 3. 

This is a very beautiful little species with the rich coloring so 
prevalent in the mammals from Keeler. It is not unlike the rich hues 
of the species of Dipodomys from the same locality, and also of that 
which I consider the summer pelage of P. stephensi from Death 
Valley. This new sp*ecies must be very rare, as Mr. Heller was able 
to procure only two examples. 

Perognathus hispidus maximus. Subsp. nov. 

Type locality: Noble, Oklahoma Territory. 

Gen/, char.: Similar to P. h. paradoxus, but brighter in color; 
hind foot and other dimensions larger. Skull longer, parietals wider; 
interparietal longer; mastoids wider. 

Color: Upper parts mixed ochraceous and black, the latter color 
predominating; lateral line from nose to rump including shoulder and 
upper part of fore and hind legs very bright ochraceous buff; face and 
orbital region bright ochraceous buff, lightly lined with black; under 
parts, hands, and feet white; tail above blackish brown, sides buff, 
beneath white; ear buff on outside, dusky inside., 

Measurements: Total length, 243^ tail vertebrae, no; hind foot, 
29. Average of five specimens: total length, 232; tail vertebrae, 
109.4; hind foot, 27.8. Skull: total length, 34; Hensel, 25; zygomatic 
width, 16.5; mastoid width, 16; length of parietal, 5; greatest width 
of parietals, 14; length of nasals, 10.5; palatal length, 14; length of 
upper tooth row, 5; length of mandible, angle to tip of incisors, 20; 
length of lower tooth row, 4. 

While resembling P. h. paradoxus, the present race is easily dis- 
tinguished from that form by its bright colors and greater size, the 
latter indeed making it quite conspicuous when compared with its 
nearest relatives. A series of these was obtained by Mr. Surber in 
Oklahoma Territory, which were referred in my paper (Pub. Field 
Columb. Mus. , 1899, I., p. 300) to P. h. paradoxus, from which it 
seems entitled to be separated as a distinct race. 




Lepus* laticinctus. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Ore Grande, Mohave Desert, Kern County, Cali- 

Genl. char.: Desert form, much paler than either L. auduboni 
or L. a. sanctidiegi, with a much paler nape, a dark band across thighs, 
and soles of feet bistre, and the nasals shorter on the median line. 

Color: Upper part of head and dorsal region pinkish buff, the 
black bases of the hairs showing, giving these parts a streaked appear- 
ance of black and pinkish buff; nape pale taWhy ochraceous; rump 
french gray (No. 10 of Ridgway, plate II), darkest in the middle; 
sides cream buff; broad band in front of thighs like dorsal region; 
sides of head mixed buff and black; orbital ring pale buff; pectoral 
band buff; lips, throat, and rest of under parts, under parts of fore 
legs, and upper part of hind legs and feet white, with some white on fore 
feet about toes; soles of all feet bistre; tail above blackish, the hairs 
tipped with buff; beneath white; ears externally mixed buff and black, 
with the edges white, internally lead color, nearly naked. 

Measurements: Tolal length, 395; tail vertebrae, 62; hind foot, 
88; ear, 79. Skull: total length, 70; Hensel, 53; interorbital width, 
19; median length of nasals, 20; lateral length of nasals, 29; posterior 
width of nasals, 14; anterior width of nasals, 9; palatal length, 25; 
length of upper tooth row, 1 1 ; length of mandible, angle to tips of 
incisors, 54; length of lower tooth row, alveolar border, 13. 

This appears to be a very distinct form, quite different in colora- 
tion from any described, and is easily recognizable by its pale hue and 
the bands in front of thighs and the dark soles of the feet. It was 
procured only at one locality by Mr. Heller, Ore Grande, where a 
small series was obtained. 

Lepus 1. rufipes. Subsp. nov. 

Type locality: Furnace Creek, Death Valley, Inyo County, Cali- 

Genl, char.: Similar to L. laticinctus^ but paler and smaller; soles 
of feet russet; ear shorter. 

Color: Upper parts buffy white ; the base of fur lead color, then 

* Latus, broad cinctus a band. 


pale brown and hairs tipped with white, which gives the general hue to 
the upper parts; nape buff, darkest on lower part; top of head like 
back; sides grayish white; faint brown stripes in front of thighs; rump 
pale gray ; upper part of fore legs, lower part of shoulders and thighs, 
and soles of feet, russet; pectoral band pale buff; entire under parts 
and upper surface of hind feet white, base of fur plumbeous; ears 
mixed buff and black, edges white; tail above similar to rump, beneath 

Measurements: Total length, 355; tail vertebrae, 59; hind foot, 
85; ear, 74. Skull: total length, 66; Hensel, 50; zygomatic width, 
32; interorbital width, 16; median length of nasals, 15; lateral length 
of nasals, 25 ; anterior width of nasals, 7 ; posterior width of nasals, 
12; palatal length, 24; length of upper tooth row, 11.5; length of 
lower tooth row, 10. 

This race while having a general resemblance to L. laticinctus from 
the Mohave Desert, can be recognized at once by the reddish hue of 
the soles of the feet and upper part of fore legs. It is also consider- 
ably smaller. The race seems to be restricted to Death Valley, as 
the rabbit of the Panamints and neighboring ranges apparently rep- 
resents a different race. 

Lepus 1. *perplicatus. Subsp. nov. 

Type locality: Hannopec Canon, Panamint Mountains, Inyo 
County, southeastern California. 

Geogr. distr.: Panamint, Coso and Inyo mountains, Inyo County, 
California. Altitude 7,500 feet. 

Genl. char.-: Similar to L. laticinctus and L. I, rufipes, but smaller 
than the former and larger than the latter, with the soles of the feet 
Prout's brown. Ear shorter in proportion to other dimensions. 

Color: Upper parts similar to those of L. laticinctus; rump dark 
gray with the hairs tipped with white; upper part of fore legs vina- 
ceous cinnamon; soles of feet Prout's brown; pectoral band dark 
buff; throat whitish plumbeous; rest of under parts white. 

Measurements: Total length, 380; tail vertebrae, 69; hind foot, 98; 
ear, 73. Skull: total length, 64.5; Hensel, 49; zygomatic width, 33; 
interorbital width, 16; median length of nasals, 17; lateral length of 
nasals, 21; anterior width of nasals, n; length of upper tooth row, 8; 
length of lower tooth row, 9. 

This race, found at a high elevation on the mountains, is in some 
respects intermediate between L. laticinctus and L. I. rufipes, both 

* Perplicatus, intermingled. 


desert forms. In size it is nearest to the first named, and it may have 
a darker pelage, but as all the five specimens procured are in process 
of change it is difficult to say what the color of the perfect dress 
exactly is. It is considerably larger than L, 1. rufipes, with a shorter 
ear, and soles of the feet colored differently from those of the other 
two forms. 



Vulpes *arsipus. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Daggett, San Bernardino County, California. 

Genl. char.: Similar to V. macrotis, but paler and smaller, post- 
orbital processes longer; pterygoid fossa narrower. 

Color: Top of head mixed pale gray and brownish fulvous, more 
brownish and darker than the back ; upper parts of body pale grizzled 
gray, paler on the sides, where the gray grades into buff; outer sides 
of fore legs and thighs, and down outside of hind legs to the toes pale 
fulvous; narrow pectoral collar pale fulvous; black patch on sides of 
nose from eye, and one on either side of chin; brown post-ocular 
stripe; under parts, inner side of thigh, and front of hind legs 
whitish, tail above pale gray, tinged with buff/ beneath buffy, tip 
brownish black; ears externally pale cinnamon and narrowly edged 
with white. 

Measurements: Total length, 810; tail vertebrae, 310; hind foot, 
128; ear from notch, 86. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 103; Hensel, 
104; zygomatic width, 61 ; interorbital constriction, 20.5; across post- 
orbital processes, 28; palatal length, 56; length of nasals, 39; length 
of upper molar series, anterior edge of first premolar to posterior 
edge of last molar, 44; length of mandible, 82.5; length of lower 
molar series, 47.5. 

This fox is an inhabitant of the Mohave Desert, and Mr. Heller 
secured a series at various localities from Daggett north to Wild Rose 
Spring at the base of the Panamint Mountains. It is paler and smaller 
than the other described forms, and does not seem to have the red- 
dish summer pelage characteristic of V. macrotis and V. hebes (hebe?) 
of Calgary, Alberta, the present form apparently retaining its pale 
grayish pelage throughout the year. Daggett was the most southern 
point in the Mohave Desert where this fox was seen by Mr. Heller. 

* dpffdtouff swift of foot. 



Ursus *hylodromus. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Alberta, Northwest Territory. 

Genl. char.: Skull: forehead prominent; elevated above face, 
highest part of brain-case slightly anterior to a line from the roots of 
the zygomata; frontals broad at post-orbital processes; outline of nasals 
concave, the posterior portion curving upwards on to the frontals, 
similar to the nasals of U. altifrontalis and U. machetes, but in a less 
degree ; brain-case bulging on sides to a greater extent than that of 
either of the species named; zygomatic arches only moderately 
expanded ; narial opening very large, wide and evenly rounded infe- 
riorly; occipital crest prominent; bullae wider than long, the tubular 
meatus much elongated and narrow; pterygoid fossa broad, narrowest 
anteriorly at palatal arch, the processes rather short, broad, and their 
tips turned inwards; palate of nearly equal width for the entire length 
between the tooth rows, contracting after last molar gradually to the 
pterygoids; basioccipital flat and very broad, sides low; mandible 
very heavy ; upper outline of coronoid process curving downward pos- 
teriorly and forming a hook. 

Measurements: Total length, 312; occipito-nasal length, 257; 
Hensel, 270; zygomatic width, 173; width at post-orbital processes, 
96; width between orbits, 69; greatest breadth of brain-case, 102; 
length of nasals, 76; width anteriorly, 30; width posteriorly, 12; 
greatest width of narial opening, 50; height of narial opening, 41; 
width of basioccipital, 47; of basisphenoid, 36; length of pterygoid 
fossa, 46; anterior width, 16; median width, 25; posterior width at 
pterygoid processes, 24; palatal length, 153; width between last 
molars, 45 ; between canines at posterior edge, 45 ; between outer 
edges at palatal arch, 36; length of three upper molars, alveolar border, 
67; length of mandible, 217; depth of mandible at middle of second 
molar, 37.5; height at coronoid process, 88; width of coronoid process 
above condyle, 57; breadth of coronoid process beneath hook, 41; 
breadth at hook, 40 ; length of three lower molars, alveolar border, 65. 
No skin preserved. 

This black bear is nearest allied to the Ursus altifrontalis from 
the Olympic Mountains, and the skulls have a general resemblance, 
with the characters of the present form much less accentuated. It 

* blo-dpofjiuo wood-ranging. 


has a high and broad forehead, but nevertheless it is lower and nar- 
rower than in the western species; the brain-case, however, is much 
wider and more swollen, and the zygomatic arches much less spread as 
the measurements show 173 to 185 ; the basioccipital and basisphenoid 
are much flatter, and the pterygoid fossa much wider, particularly at 
the posterior end, with the tips of the pterygoid processes turning 
inward instead of outward, as in U. altifrontalis; the palate is wider 
throughout its length, and does not become narrow anteriorly as in 
the species just named. In comparison with the eastern black bear 
(Wisconsin and Maine), the forehead is considerably more elevated, 
and the brain-case much broader; the nasals are longer and elevated 
posteriorly; the narial opening much broader and flatter on the inferior 
border; the pterygoid fossa much wider and the tips of the processes 
turn inward and not outward. The differences are similar to those 
which characterized the new form when compared with the Pacific 
Coast black bears, placing U. hylodromus between the two. The east- 
ern black bear, however, has the forehead nearly on a line with the 
face, and in this respect differs from both of its relatives, and pos- 
sesses also a comparatively long and narrow brain-case, in the latter 
peculiarity not unlike that of U. altifrontalis, while the new form has the 
brain-case equally long, but bulging outward posterior to the fronto- 
parietal suture. The shape of the coronoid process of the mandible 
of the eastern black bear skull is very different from both of these 
others, the posterior outline being nearly straight from the condyle to 
the tip, and entirely without the downward curve at the tip so con- 
spicuous in the other two species. The horizontal portion of the 
mandible of U. hylodromus is deeper and heavier than either of the 


Bassariscus albipes. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Near Vera Cruz, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Gen/, char.: Size large, color dark, feet white. Skull long, 
narrow, nasals pointed posteriorly (rounded in B. astutus and B. a. 
raptor], and considerably depressed in the middle, causing the outline 
to be concave, as the posterior portion ascends to the frontals; the 
brain-case is rather narrow for its length, and does not widen posteri- 
orly equal to that of B. astutus;' the pterygoid fossa is long and rather 
broad, and the processes of the pterygoids are thickened and heavy, 


very different from the slender processes of the species compared; 
infraorbital foramina very large and triangular in shape; palate 
anteriorly much broader for its length than either of the other forms; 
post-orbital processes short. 

Color: Upper parts very dark gray, the hairs being yellowish at 
base and tipped with black, the dark color predominating to such an 
extent on the dorsal region that this part seems in certain lights all 
black; sides of neck and body slightly paler; top of head nearly black 
like the back, mixed slightly with white and buff hairs; above the eye 
for the posterior three-fourths is a buff spot connecting posteriorly 
with a buff stripe that runs under the eye to the nose; black band in 
front of eye; end of nose blackish brown; muzzle black; upper lip 
buff; chin and throat buff; rest of under parts yellowish white; shoul- 
ders like back; upper parts of fore and hind legs brownish gray; fore 
feet white or very pale yellowish white, this hue extending up the out- 
side to beyond wrist; under side of legs yellowish white; hind feet 
with terminal part and toes whitish. Tail very long with alternating 
white and black rings, and tip black ; the black rings much broader 
than the white and not meeting beneath. Ears, basal half black, 
remainder white; whiskers very long, jet black. 

Measurements: Total length, 870; tail, 425; hind foot, 80. Skull: 
total length, 89; occipito-nasal length, 80; Hensel, 80; zygomatic 
width, 53; interorbital constriction, 17; post-orbital constriction, 18; 
width across post-orbital processes, 25.5; greatest width of brain- 
case, 36; length of nasals, 20.5; mastoid width, 36; length of ptery- 
goid fossa, 18; palatal length, 37.5; width of palate between last 
molars, 12; between canines, 10.5; length of upper tooth row from 
anterior edge of canine, alveolar border, 34; length of canine, n; 
length of mandible, 55; height at coronoid process, 23; at angle, 9; 
length of lower tooth row, molar series alveolar border, 27; from 
anterior edge of canine, 34. 

This is a large form of Bassariscus, with a dark, almost black, 
pelage in certain lights on the upper parts, and with a much longer tail 
than any other described species, and with conspicuously white feet 
tinged with yellow. In general appearance it does not seem to re- 
semble very closely any of the known raccoon foxes. A single specimen 
was obtained by Mr. Buxton near Vera Cruz, Mexico. 



Gulo *luteus. Sp. nov. 

Type locality: Mount Whitney. 

Geogr. distr.: Mount Whitney to Yukatat Bay(?), Alaska. 

Genl. char. : General color of hind part of head, sides, and base 
of tail, buff color. 

Color: Nose, lips, cheeks back to and including eyes, jet black; 
top of head and back of eyes pale gray; nape and space between 
shoulders chestnut; lower part of back and rump seal brown in the 
center, grading to chestnut on the edges ; band across middle of back 
encircling the dark patch, and sides buff color; under parts blackish 
chestnut with small white spots on throat; legs and feet black; tail, 
basal half buff, remainder black ; ears chestnut, with broad buff edging. 

Measurements: Immature. Total length, 850; tail vertebrae, 205; 
hind foot, 165; ear, 53. 

This is a pale species of wolverine, strikingly different from the 
well-known animal that up to this time has represented the genus 
Gulo. The type specimen is an immature male, but the trappers and 
ranchmen told Mr. Heller that although the creature was rare, yet 
occasionally one was killed, and the old ones were exactly like the 
present specimen. This statement is probably correct, for the young 
of Gulo luscus resemble their parents in coloration. When I was last 
in Alaska with the Harriman expedition I obtained at Yukatat Bay a 
skin of a pale-colored adult wolverine, which I was inclined to regard 
as a freak specimen. 

The exact locality of its capture was not known, and the trader 
from whom it was bought could not say whether the specimen was 
taken in the vicinity of Yukatat bay or brought from a distance. I 
brought it back and put it in the collection with other wolverine skins. 
On comparing the Mount Whitney specimen with this one from Alaska, 
it was at once seen they were exactly alike in their coloring, and in the 
distribution of the hues ; the buff base of the tail and the sides and the jet 
black muzzle and fore part of head being especially conspicuous. The 
Yukatat' example is fully adult and about the size of an ordinary Gulo 
luscus, and the exact resemblance of these two specimens to each 
other would seem to confirm the statement made by the residents near 
Mount Whitney that the old and young wolverines in their locality do 
not differ in appearance. A second specimen of wolverine is inter- 

* Luteus buff. 


esting on account of the wide distribution of the species so long known, 
and it is hoped that more examples and an understanding of its distri- 
bution may ere long be obtained. Mount Whitney I believe is the 
most southern locality in which a wolverine has been procured. The 
skull of the type was badly broken, the animal having been killed by 
a blow on the head. 

v r *-^ 

- .> r^r's- 

T * ^ 

-*~ * ~+** wfc 

-\<"- k -:-v \M. 

>^ ~t . ^.. p 



590. 5FI C001 



.". 'A|^ 

. -, ;'